成考导航
成考导航
18931373570
 

复习技巧

您当前位置:河北学历信息网 >> 复习技巧 >> 浏览文章

2013成考英语语法归纳与练习

最后更新时间:2013年09月06日 本文来自:本站原创
一、平行结构与比较级

  平行结构很多情况下是由形容词或副词的比较级或者暗含比较意味的连词引导的。如:

  The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes.

  大多数情况下平行结构都是具有一定的比较含义的,有的是递进对比not only…but(also);prefer…to…;rather than有的是同类对比:and ;but;or;both… and…;either…or…;neither…nor………

二、平行结构测试时候注意以下几点:

  1、注意比较结构中相比较的内容在语法形式上是否相同。如:

  It is better to die one's feet than .

  [A]living on one's knees [B]live on one's knees

  [C]on one's knees [D]to live on one's knees

  (答案为D)

  Despite the temporary difficulties,the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it.

  2、其他具有并列或比较意义的短语也可引导平行结构。

  1)rather than,let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。如:

  We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style in a personal style.

  [A]rather than [B]other than [C]better than [D]less than

  答案为A

  For the new country to survive,for its people to enjoy prosperity,new economic policies will be required.

  [A]to name a few [B]let alone [C]not to speak [D]let's say

  (答案为B)

  2)如果平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短语,而且介词相同,一般说来第二个介词不要省略。如:

  At times,more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.

三、形容词的修饰与位置

  一般来说,从构词法角度来看,后缀"ly"往往是副词,但有的以"ly"结尾的词是形容词而不是副词,这点要注意;形容词一般可以在句子中做定语,表语等成份,但有些形容词在句子中只能做表语和只能做前置定语;这些形容词在修饰时候有一定的特殊性要引起大家的注意,下面做了一下归纳:

  1、以-ly结尾的是形容词而不是副词:

  costly 昂贵的 lonely 孤独的

  deadly 死一般的 lively 活泼的

  friendly 友好的 silly 傻气的

  kindly 热心肠的 likely 可能的

  leisurely 悠闲的 ugly 长得丑的

  brotherly 兄弟般的 monthly 每月的

  earthly 尘世的

  2、只作以"a"开头的很多形容词只能做表语:

  afraid 害怕的 alike 相象的

  awake 醒着的 alone 单独的,惟一的

  alive 活着的 ashamed 羞愧的

  asleep 睡着的 aware 意识到的、察觉到的

  well 健康的 content 满意的

  unable 无能的

  3、只作前置定语的形容词:

  earthen 泥土做的,大地的 daily 每日的 latter 后面的

  golden 金子般的 weekly 每周的 inner 里面的

  silken 丝一般的 monthly 每月的 outer 外面的

  wooden 木制的 yearly 每年的 elder 年长的

  woolen 毛织的 former 前任的 mere 仅,只不过

  only 惟一的 sheer 纯粹的 very 恰好的

  little 小的 live 活的

  4、下列动词既是实义动词又是系动词,注意用做系动词时,要求形容词做表语:

  remain keep become,get,grow,go,come,turn,stay,stand,run,prove,seem,appear,look.

  如:All those left undone may sound great in theory,but even the truest believer has great difficulty when it comes to specifics.

四、用全部倒装的情况

  全部倒装一般是存在以下列副词开头的句子中,全部倒装的方法是把句子的主谓语序颠倒过来,把谓语移到主语前面:

  1)出于修辞需要,表示方向的副词:out,down,in ,up,away,on.如:

  Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.

  Up went the plane

  2)出于习惯用法:here,there,now,thus,hence,then.如:

  Now is your turn. There goes the bell.

  Here is a ticket for you.

  There existed a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of work.

  注意:here,there用于倒装结构时主语一般为名词,如果是人称代词则不需要倒装

  “where is the cup?” “Here it is!”

  Here you are.

  There he comes.

  3)有时主语较长,为了使句子平衡,避免头重脚轻,主谓要全部倒装。这种情况多出现在主系表结构中。如:

  Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life.

  In between these two extremes are those people who agree with the jury system as a whole, but feel that some changes need to be implemented to improve its effectiveness.五、采用部分倒装情况

  部分倒装一般是把句子谓语的一部分(主要是助动词或系动词)放到句子主语前,构成部分倒装,而全部倒装则把句子的谓语(包括实义动词)都放在主语前:

  1、下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置于句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装:

  never,no,neither,not only,hardly,scarcely,little,seldom,rarely,not until,nowhere,at no time,on no account,in no respect,in no sense,by no means,in vain,still less.如:

  Not only is its direct attack on their discipline,it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on.

  Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.

  注:1)如果谓语动词是单个实义动词,倒装时需根据人称和时态加助动词do.如:

  Little did we expect that he would fulfill his task so rapidly.
关键字: